The Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, also called the Age of Reason, was so named for an intellectual movement that shook the foundations of Western civilization. In championing radical ideas such as individual liberty and an empirical appraisal of the universe through rational inquiry and natural experience, Enlightenment philosophers in Europe and America planted the seeds for modern liberalism, cultural humanism, science and technology, and laissez-faire Capitalism This volume brings together works from this era, with more than 100 selections from a range of sources. It includes examples by Kant, Diderot, Voltaire, Newton, Rousseau, Locke, Franklin, Jefferson, Madison, and Paine that demonstrate the pervasive impact of Enlightenment views on philosophy and epistemology as well as on political, social, and economic institutions.
ALEXANDER MACLEOD was born in Inverness, Cape Breton and raised in Windsor, Ontario. His first collection of stories, Light Lifting, was a national bestseller, won an Atlantic Book Award, and was a finalist for the Scotiabank Giller Prize, the Frank O’Connor International Short Story Award, the Thomas Head Raddall Fiction Award, and the Commonwealth Book Prize. His most recent book of fiction, Animal Person, won the Dartmouth Book Award for Fiction, was named a Best Book of the Year by The New Yorker, CBC Books, and the Globe and Mail, and includes stories that were featured in The New Yorker, Granta, and The O. Henry Prize Stories. In 2019, he won an O. Henry Award for his story “Lagomorph.” MacLeod holds degrees from the University of Windsor, the University of Notre Dame, and McGill University. He currently lives in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, and teaches at Saint Mary’s University in Halifax.

SOUVANKHAM THAMMAVONGSA's fiction has appeared in The New Yorker, Harper's, Granta, The Atlantic, The Paris Review, Ploughshares, Best American Non-Required Reading, The Journey Prize Stories, and The O. Henry Prize Stories. Her debut book of fiction, How to Pronounce Knife, won the 2020 Scotiabank Giller Prize and the 2021 Trillium Book Award, and was named a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award, the PEN America Open Book Award, the Danuta Gleed Award, and one of Time's Must-Read Books of 2020. Thammavongsa is also the author of four poetry books: Light, winner of the Trillium Book Award for Poetry; Found; Small Arguments, winner of the ReLit Award; and, most recently, Cluster. Born in the Lao refugee camp in Nong Khai, Thailand, she was raised and educated in Toronto, where she is at work on her first novel. View titles by Various
Notes to Introduction
Suggestions for Further Reading
Chronological Table

Part One: The Enlightenment Spirit: An Overview

What is Enlightenment?
Kant
The Human Mind Emerged from Barbarism
d’Alembert
“Encyclopédie”
Diderot
Definition of a Philosophe
Dumarsais
Le mariage de Figaro
Beaumarchais
The Magic Flute
Mozart
The Future Progress of the Human Mind
Condorcet

Part Two: Reason and Nature

The New Science
Bacon
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
Newton
The New Physics
Cotes
On Bacon and Newton
Voltaire
The Rat
Buffon
The Utility of Science
Condorcet
The Organization of Scientific Research
Priestley
Letter to Joseph Priestley
Franklin

Part Three: Reason and God

On Superstition and Tolerance
Bayle
A Letter Concerning Toleration
Locke
On Enthusiasm
Shaftesbury
The Argument for a Deity
Newton
A Discourse of Free-Thinking
Collins
“If there is a God…;”

Montesquieu
Of Miracles and the Origin of Religion
Hume
Reflections on Religion
Voltaire
Profession of Faith of a Savoyard Vicar
Rousseau
“No need of theology…;only of reason…;”
d’Holbach
The Progress of Superstition
Gibbon
Unitarianism

Priestley
“Religion…;my views of it…;”
Jefferson
“Something of my religion…;”
Franklin
The Temple of Reason

The Age of Reason
Paine

Part Four: Reason and Humanity

The Mind and Ideas

“I think, therefore I am…;”
Descartes
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Locke
New Essays on Human Understanding
Leibnitz
On Mr. Locke
Voltaire
A Treatise of Human Nature
Hume
Man a Machine
la Mettrie
Of Ideas, Their Generation and Associations

Hartley
The Philosophy of Common Sense
Reid
Treatise on the Sensations
Condillac

Education and Childhood

Some Thoughts Concerning Education
Locke
Children and Civic Education
Rousseau
Education for Civil and Active Life
Priestley

Manners and Morals

The Fable of the Bees
Mandeville
An Essay on Man
Pope
Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure
Cleland
Enjoyment and Tahiti
Diderot
Concerning the Moral Sense
Hutcheson
The Impartial Spectator
Smith
A Treatise on Man

Helvétius
Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals
Kant
The Principle of Utility
Bentham

Taste and Art

On Wit
Addison
Ideas of Beauty and Virtue
Hutcheson
Discourse on Style
Buffon
Of the Standard of Taste
Hume
The Sublime
Burke
On Theater and Morals
Rousseau
On Custom and Fashion
Smith
The Beautiful and Sublime

Kant
Discourse on Art
Reynolds

Part Five: Reason and Society

Progress and History

The New Science
Vico
The Utility of History
Bolingbroke
History as Guide
Hume
On Progress
Turgot
A Critique of Progress
Rousseau
In Defense of Modernity
Voltaire
The Four-Stage Theory of Development
Smith
The Progressive Character of Human Nature
Ferguson
“How glorious, then, is the prospect…;”

Priestley
The Perfectibility of Man
Condorcet

Politics and the State

The Second Treatise of Civil Government
Locke
The Spirit of the Laws
Montesquieu
Political Essays
Voltaire
Discourse on the Origin of Inequality
Rousseau
The Social Contract
Rousseau
Common Sense
Paine
The American Declaration of Independence
Benevolent Despotism
Frederick the Great
Federalist No. 10
Madison
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
The Rights of Man

Paine
Enquiry Concerning Political Justice
Godwin

The Economy and Markets

The Royal Exchange
Addison
Industry and the Way to Wealth
Franklin
Of Luxury
Hume
The Physiocratic Formula

Quesnay
Economic Liberty
Turgot
The Wealth of Nations
Smith

Crime and Punishment

The Severity of Criminal Laws
Montesquieu
An Essay on Crimes and Punishments
Beccaria
On Torture and Capital Punishment
Voltaire
The State of Prisons
Howard
“Cases unmeet for punishment…;”
Bentham

War and Peace

Splendid Armies
Voltaire
“There never was a good war…;”
Franklin
Perpetual Peace
Kant

Gender and Race

Some Reflections upon Marriage
Astell
Duties of Women
Rousseau
The Fair Sex
Kant
Women, Adored and Oppressed
Paine(attr.)
“A woman…;gossips much…;”
Mozart
Women’s Education
Macaulay
On the Equality of the Sexes

Constantia
The Rights of Woman
de Gouges
Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Wollstonecraft
“Negroes…;naturally inferior to the whites…;”
Hume
Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes
Woolman
The Difference between the Races
Kant
“Who are you, then, to make slaves…;”

Diderot
“Bestial manners, stupidity, and vices…;”

Long
African Slavery in America
Paine
Of Empires and Savages
Gibbon
On Indians and Negroes
Jefferson
“Negro”
Encylopaedia Britannica
The End of Empire
Priestley

About

The Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, also called the Age of Reason, was so named for an intellectual movement that shook the foundations of Western civilization. In championing radical ideas such as individual liberty and an empirical appraisal of the universe through rational inquiry and natural experience, Enlightenment philosophers in Europe and America planted the seeds for modern liberalism, cultural humanism, science and technology, and laissez-faire Capitalism This volume brings together works from this era, with more than 100 selections from a range of sources. It includes examples by Kant, Diderot, Voltaire, Newton, Rousseau, Locke, Franklin, Jefferson, Madison, and Paine that demonstrate the pervasive impact of Enlightenment views on philosophy and epistemology as well as on political, social, and economic institutions.

Author

ALEXANDER MACLEOD was born in Inverness, Cape Breton and raised in Windsor, Ontario. His first collection of stories, Light Lifting, was a national bestseller, won an Atlantic Book Award, and was a finalist for the Scotiabank Giller Prize, the Frank O’Connor International Short Story Award, the Thomas Head Raddall Fiction Award, and the Commonwealth Book Prize. His most recent book of fiction, Animal Person, won the Dartmouth Book Award for Fiction, was named a Best Book of the Year by The New Yorker, CBC Books, and the Globe and Mail, and includes stories that were featured in The New Yorker, Granta, and The O. Henry Prize Stories. In 2019, he won an O. Henry Award for his story “Lagomorph.” MacLeod holds degrees from the University of Windsor, the University of Notre Dame, and McGill University. He currently lives in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, and teaches at Saint Mary’s University in Halifax.

SOUVANKHAM THAMMAVONGSA's fiction has appeared in The New Yorker, Harper's, Granta, The Atlantic, The Paris Review, Ploughshares, Best American Non-Required Reading, The Journey Prize Stories, and The O. Henry Prize Stories. Her debut book of fiction, How to Pronounce Knife, won the 2020 Scotiabank Giller Prize and the 2021 Trillium Book Award, and was named a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award, the PEN America Open Book Award, the Danuta Gleed Award, and one of Time's Must-Read Books of 2020. Thammavongsa is also the author of four poetry books: Light, winner of the Trillium Book Award for Poetry; Found; Small Arguments, winner of the ReLit Award; and, most recently, Cluster. Born in the Lao refugee camp in Nong Khai, Thailand, she was raised and educated in Toronto, where she is at work on her first novel. View titles by Various

Table of Contents

Notes to Introduction
Suggestions for Further Reading
Chronological Table

Part One: The Enlightenment Spirit: An Overview

What is Enlightenment?
Kant
The Human Mind Emerged from Barbarism
d’Alembert
“Encyclopédie”
Diderot
Definition of a Philosophe
Dumarsais
Le mariage de Figaro
Beaumarchais
The Magic Flute
Mozart
The Future Progress of the Human Mind
Condorcet

Part Two: Reason and Nature

The New Science
Bacon
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
Newton
The New Physics
Cotes
On Bacon and Newton
Voltaire
The Rat
Buffon
The Utility of Science
Condorcet
The Organization of Scientific Research
Priestley
Letter to Joseph Priestley
Franklin

Part Three: Reason and God

On Superstition and Tolerance
Bayle
A Letter Concerning Toleration
Locke
On Enthusiasm
Shaftesbury
The Argument for a Deity
Newton
A Discourse of Free-Thinking
Collins
“If there is a God…;”

Montesquieu
Of Miracles and the Origin of Religion
Hume
Reflections on Religion
Voltaire
Profession of Faith of a Savoyard Vicar
Rousseau
“No need of theology…;only of reason…;”
d’Holbach
The Progress of Superstition
Gibbon
Unitarianism

Priestley
“Religion…;my views of it…;”
Jefferson
“Something of my religion…;”
Franklin
The Temple of Reason

The Age of Reason
Paine

Part Four: Reason and Humanity

The Mind and Ideas

“I think, therefore I am…;”
Descartes
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Locke
New Essays on Human Understanding
Leibnitz
On Mr. Locke
Voltaire
A Treatise of Human Nature
Hume
Man a Machine
la Mettrie
Of Ideas, Their Generation and Associations

Hartley
The Philosophy of Common Sense
Reid
Treatise on the Sensations
Condillac

Education and Childhood

Some Thoughts Concerning Education
Locke
Children and Civic Education
Rousseau
Education for Civil and Active Life
Priestley

Manners and Morals

The Fable of the Bees
Mandeville
An Essay on Man
Pope
Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure
Cleland
Enjoyment and Tahiti
Diderot
Concerning the Moral Sense
Hutcheson
The Impartial Spectator
Smith
A Treatise on Man

Helvétius
Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals
Kant
The Principle of Utility
Bentham

Taste and Art

On Wit
Addison
Ideas of Beauty and Virtue
Hutcheson
Discourse on Style
Buffon
Of the Standard of Taste
Hume
The Sublime
Burke
On Theater and Morals
Rousseau
On Custom and Fashion
Smith
The Beautiful and Sublime

Kant
Discourse on Art
Reynolds

Part Five: Reason and Society

Progress and History

The New Science
Vico
The Utility of History
Bolingbroke
History as Guide
Hume
On Progress
Turgot
A Critique of Progress
Rousseau
In Defense of Modernity
Voltaire
The Four-Stage Theory of Development
Smith
The Progressive Character of Human Nature
Ferguson
“How glorious, then, is the prospect…;”

Priestley
The Perfectibility of Man
Condorcet

Politics and the State

The Second Treatise of Civil Government
Locke
The Spirit of the Laws
Montesquieu
Political Essays
Voltaire
Discourse on the Origin of Inequality
Rousseau
The Social Contract
Rousseau
Common Sense
Paine
The American Declaration of Independence
Benevolent Despotism
Frederick the Great
Federalist No. 10
Madison
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
The Rights of Man

Paine
Enquiry Concerning Political Justice
Godwin

The Economy and Markets

The Royal Exchange
Addison
Industry and the Way to Wealth
Franklin
Of Luxury
Hume
The Physiocratic Formula

Quesnay
Economic Liberty
Turgot
The Wealth of Nations
Smith

Crime and Punishment

The Severity of Criminal Laws
Montesquieu
An Essay on Crimes and Punishments
Beccaria
On Torture and Capital Punishment
Voltaire
The State of Prisons
Howard
“Cases unmeet for punishment…;”
Bentham

War and Peace

Splendid Armies
Voltaire
“There never was a good war…;”
Franklin
Perpetual Peace
Kant

Gender and Race

Some Reflections upon Marriage
Astell
Duties of Women
Rousseau
The Fair Sex
Kant
Women, Adored and Oppressed
Paine(attr.)
“A woman…;gossips much…;”
Mozart
Women’s Education
Macaulay
On the Equality of the Sexes

Constantia
The Rights of Woman
de Gouges
Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Wollstonecraft
“Negroes…;naturally inferior to the whites…;”
Hume
Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes
Woolman
The Difference between the Races
Kant
“Who are you, then, to make slaves…;”

Diderot
“Bestial manners, stupidity, and vices…;”

Long
African Slavery in America
Paine
Of Empires and Savages
Gibbon
On Indians and Negroes
Jefferson
“Negro”
Encylopaedia Britannica
The End of Empire
Priestley

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